An ink or optically variable device that exhibits a different colour at different viewing angles.

Competent authority

A government agency designated to implement a system, such as a tax stamp and track and trace solution.


To simulate, reproduce or copy an item without authorisation.

Covert security feature

Also known as Level 3 security, covert (or hidden) features require a detector or instrument in their detection, which are usually only available to enforcement authorities. The general public and supply chain operators generally do not know about these...


A method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes.