A material comprising a polyester carrier with one or more coatings, a release layer and an adhesive layer. The foil is transferred – generally by heat – onto paper and label stock, and the carrier is stripped away, leaving the coating which is bonded to the substrate...

Forensic security feature

Also referred to as Level 4 security, forensic features are reserved for special departments or officials. Special tools or laboratories are required to reveal their presence and characteristics. The presence and nature of these features are generally kept a closely...

Four-colour printing

Also known as process colour printing – a conventional printing method based on four colours: the so-called CMYK colours of cyan, magenta, yellow and black. Together, these colours can reproduce on paper almost 70% of the colours visible to the human eye.


Also called document biometrics, this refers to the combination of scanning and software programmes with unique physical characteristics intrinsic to a product or tax stamp. Fingerprinting is based on the fundamental premise that at the microscopic or molecular level...

FCTC Protocol

World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) global treaty, and its Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. The Protocol requires all parties to implement secure track and trace systems by 2023.