ISO 22381:2018

An ISO guidance standard for establishing interoperability among object identification systems to deter counterfeiting and illicit trade.

ISO 22382:2018

An ISO guidance standard for the content, security, issuance and examination of excise tax stamps.

ISO 22383:2020

An ISO guidance standard for the selection and performance evaluation of authentication solutions for material goods”


One or more atoms with the same number of protons (atomic number) but a different number of neutrons. 

Interference (light)

The result of the interaction of two intercepting light waves. Interference pigment flakes are used in colour-shifting inks and interference foils with colour-shifting properties also exist.