International Standards Organisation (ISO)

An independent, non-governmental international organisation with a membership of 165 national standards bodies. Through its members, ISO brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market-relevant international standards that...


The ability of different information systems, devices and applications to access, exchange, integrate and cooperatively use data in a coordinated manner, within and across organisational, regional and national boundaries.


The ability of some materials to create rainbow effects when they reflect white light. Pearls, oil films on water and bubbles all show iridescence. The effect can be created with foils and inks to create optically variable devices.

ISO 12931:2012

An ISO guidance standard for performance criteria for authentication solutions used to combat counterfeiting of material goods.